Sanjay Dharwadker is a founder member of the institute. Based in Utrecht, the Netherlands, he currently heads the global ID consultancy practice for WCC. During 2005-2012, he worked with Safran Morpho as regional manager for a number of African countries and was based in Johannesburg. He has also been an independent consultant, with assignments in Africa and South-east Asia, including an Asian Development Bank Consultancy for the Government of VietNam. Mr. Dharwadker has helped pioneer many of India’s large ID smart card projects, such as: the driving licence, vehicle registration, health, ration, social security, farmer, fishermen and dairy cards. Besides India, he also advises many national governments on smart cards in the public domain. In India, Mr. Dharwadker successfully headed the marketing function at Smart Chip Ltd. Subsequently he was Managing Director at AKS Smart Card Systems Ltd. Mr. Dharwadker has also consulted for World Bank projects, UN, European Commission and bilateral missions. He was also associated with India's large IT initiatives under the National Technology Missions for rural development and child immunization. Mr. Sanjay Dharwadker is a post-graduate in Pure Mathematics from BITS, Pilani, one of India’s premier science & technology universities.

A Brief History of Biometrics. About three billion individuals have their biometrics on some sort of identification system worldwide. Of course, these are not all national identity systems, but the trend to trust the accuracy and speed of biometrics is irreversible. Records of using fingerprints for identification have been found in ancient China, Babylon and Persia. In 1686, an Italian, Marcello Malpighi from Bologna first scientifically noted the ridges, spirals and loops on the fingertips. This 1.8 mm thick layer of skin is known today as the Malpighi Layer. In 1858, the first handprint of Rajyadhar Konai was recorded for legal purposes by William Herschel, governor of Hooghly, (Bengal, India). Herschel also recorded his own fingerprints for a period of 57 years and noted their unchanging nature. And so the evolution of fingerprints continued until 1900 when the classification and use of fingerprints was so evolved it was adopted by the British government on the report and recommendation of Edward Richard Henry, based on the work of two officers of the then Indian Police - Hem Chandra Bose and Azilul Haque. The following year, Scotland Yard set up a Fingerprint Bureau based on the Henry classification. And the evolution continues, with vascular recognition coming of age in South Korea around the year 2000. While fingerprint biometrics are the oldest and most advanced form of identification at the moment, other forms, such as iris, palm, facial, vein, signature, speech and DNA are in various stages of development and will become more prevalent in the coming years.

Key Identity management related programs with which Sanjay Dharwadker is associated are:

  • National ID systems - use of AFIS for civil population, Botswana and exposure to the South African system, 2007 - 2012
  • Criminal justice using biometrics - AFIS for the South African Police, South Africa, 2007 - 2012
  • Smart cards and biometrics for pensions and welfare - South Africa, Namibia and a number of other African countries, South Africa, 2005 - 2010
  • Criminal justice using biometrics - AFIS for police forces of various African countries, Botswana, Ethiopia & Kenya, 2007 - 2012
  • Health system using smart cards and biometrics - Gauteng province ARV delivery, South Africa, 2008 - 2009
  • State health-Insurance system using smart cards and biometrics - Viet Nam Social Security (VSS) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Viet Nam, 2004 - 2005
  • Jharkhand Drivers License and Vehicle Registration using uniform national standards - expansion and standardization - India, 2005
  • Smart cards and signatures - Kenya rural banking example, Kenya 2003 - 2004
  • Drivers License programs using smart cards and biometrics in Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim and other states of India - establishing replication and sustainability - India, 2000 - 2004
  • Smart Cards and biometrics for long-term health management of a special target group - Health system for the Bhopal gas-affected population, India 2003 - 2004
  • Smart Cards for Women’s dairy cooperatives in Rajasthan - electronic payments in a gender-sensitive rural context - India, 2002
  • Standardization of smart card and biometrics based ID systems in India - An example of public-private partnership encompassing technology as well as delivery model, India, 1999 - 2000
  • Gujarat Drivers License program using smart cards and biometrics - India’s first large-scale electronic identity program in the public domain - India, 1998
  • Hand Pumps for rural drinking water - secure electronic maintenance cardex - India, 1997

Some other related programs in the development sector:

  • Planning & monitoring of rural drinking water schemes - Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha - India, 1994 - 1997
  • Health - MIS for state-specific public health systems - CSSM related in Madhya Pradesh (USAID), India 1994 - 1996
  • Planning & monitoring public health systems - All-India CSSM program (UNICEF), India 1991 - 1995
  • Health - MIS and operations research - India Population Program (IPP IX & X - World Bank) various states, India 1991 - 1994
  • National immunization database development including logistics planning - All-India data from 495 districts with gender break-up National Immunization Mission, India 1990 - 1997
  • National Village baseline database development - All-India rural drinking water planning & monitoring (600 000 villages and over two million habitations) National rural drinking water mission, India 1989 - 1995